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Ecology in Machu Picchu

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The SHM covers an area of 32,592 hectares and is located in an area of exceptional geographic characteristics. It ranges from snow-capped peaks above 6,000 m.a.s.l. to the warmest and most humid zone of the Urubamba River (which divides the sanctuary in two, forming the Torontoy Canyon) below 2,000 m.a.s.l. Its steep gradient, accentuated by the complex wind system, creates microclimates that are a source of great biological diversity.


It is located in the district of Machu Picchu, province of Urubamba. The conservation area covers almost the entirety of the Historic Sanctuary of Machu Picchu, so that biodiversity can appreciate it on all routes that lead to Machu Picchu.



The wild flora of this region is particularly diverse, comprising species from 9 different life zones, including species typical of the Andean forests, such as Polylepissp, in the higher elevations, to epiphytes, shrubs and palms typical of the montane forests at lower altitudes. The main taxonomic groups are pteridophytes (ferns), gymnosperms, monocotyledons, dicotyledons, cryptogams, orchids, poaceae, trees, moraceae, symplocaceae, polylepis (rosaceae), ericaceae, vascular and non-vascular flora.


Despite serious environmental conflicts, it has meant the recovery of wildlife in some sectors. The recent presence of individuals such as the "spectacled bear" (Tremarctosornatus) and "mayu puma" (Lontralongicaudis), at km 107 and 112, is a positive testimony.

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